# Category Archives: Electronics in general

## Electronics basic formulas

This is just a little collection of formulas and definitions for electronics. It is not necessary to know a lot of formulas today, since we have so many tools in our PCs and calculators. But sometimes it’s nice to know how … Continue reading

## Operational amplifier basic circuits

There are some standard op-amp circuit that are often used. Because of it’s high gain, the calculations becomes easy. Mostly, the op-amp is used in a negative feed-back configuration, feeding the output back to the negative input. This will limit … Continue reading

## Controlling a bipolar stepper motor using microstepping

Stepper motor basics A standard bipolar stepper-motor usually will have 1.8 degree steps. That will be 200 steps per revolution. It has two motor windings (phase A and B) that must be controlled. The motor is rated at some maximum current per … Continue reading